• The objective of this Blog is to facilitate access to research resources and analyses from all relevant and useful sources, mainly on African Economic Development.

    This Blog will include analyses and observations of the three authors, Steven Langdon, Arch Ritter and Teddy Samy. It will also include hyper-links, abstracts, summaries, commentaries and observations relating to other research works from academic, governmental, media, non-governmental organizations and international institutions.

    Commentary and discussion on any of the postings is most welcome.


Stopping the spread of Spodoptera frugiperda

AFRICA has been invaded on quiet wings. First they landed by ship in the west. Then they spread across the continent, wreaking havoc as they went. Now, two years later, the invaders are worrying officials in almost every sub-Saharan country. It’s not the French, British or even the Chinese. This time it’s a simple American moth, the voracious fall armyworm, that has marched through Africa’s fields and is threatening to cause a food crisis.

When just a hungry caterpillar, the fall armyworm will happily munch on more than 80 plant species. But its favourite is maize—the staple for more than 200m sub-Saharan Africans. The UN’s Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) estimates that sub-Saharan Africa has about 35m hectares of maize grown by smallholders, and that almost all of it is now infested or at risk of infestation.

If the pest is not controlled, it could gobble up as much as 20% of the region’s total maize crop. Some countries may be particularly hard hit. The Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International (CABI), an association of agricultural research centres in 12 countries, thinks that big producers such as Nigeria or Tanzania could lose more than half their maize harvest.

Originally from the Americas, these worms were a plague there for hundreds of years. Yet American farmers have beaten them back with the help of genetically modified plants and advanced pesticides. By contrast, the worms are meeting little resistance in Africa. They were first officially detected in Nigeria in January 2016. Now they can be found in 43 other African countries (see map).

Two factors explain their rapid spread. The first is biology. Africa already has its own variety of the worm, which farmers can control. But the foreign species migrates and reproduces much faster. After it turns into a moth, it can fly as far as 100km (60 miles) a night. During her ten days of adulthood, a female moth can lay up to 1,000 eggs.

The second is that most of Africa’s farming is done by smallholders who use outdated techniques and whose yields are already low. The worm “is coming on top of other constant threats faced by farmers, including drought, new crop diseases, and low soil fertility,” says Joe DeVries of the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa.

Yet labour-intensive farming also offers opportunity. Experts fret that if farmers use too much cheap pesticide to kill the worms, they may end up poisoning their crops. Allan Hruska of the FAO hopes instead to teach farmers to use some of the techniques that smallholders in the Americas have long used. These include mixing crops, encouraging natural predators and patrolling fields to crush the eggs by hand.

Better still would be to copy America’s commercial farmers, who plant GM crops that are largely resistant to the worm. Almost all African countries apart from South Africa have formally or informally banned GM crops, following iffy advice from ecowarriors. Lifting these restrictions would lead to fewer hungry caterpillars and fewer hungry people.

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Tonderayi Mukeredzi, IRIN contributor in Zimbabwe

IRIN, The inside story on emergencies, HARARE, 1 February 2018

Original Article:  Cholera Crisis

Southern and East African countries are facing a severe cholera outbreak that is exposing the failure in public sanitation and the impact of government neglect.

Last year, there were more than 109,442 cholera cases resulting in 1,708 deaths in 12 countries in the Eastern and Southern Africa Region (ESAR), according to the UN children’s agency, UNICEF.

Since the beginning of 2018, there have been more than 2,009 cases and a further 22 deaths in seven countries – Angola, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania, and Zambia.

Zambia has been among the hardest hit, with the waterborne disease killing more than 74 people since October last year. Cases have been centred on the capital, Lusaka. To contain the outbreak, the government banned street food vending and public gatherings, which triggered violent protests by traders.  The World Health Organization says that while sporadic cases of cholera are regular occurrences in Zambia during the five-month rainy season, 2017 exceeded the average annual caseload.

The government and the WHO blame poor waste management and inadequate personal hygiene for the contamination of water and food in the townships, which has driven the epidemic. The government’s response has been to call in the army to help enforce control measures, clean markets, and unblock drains. It also launched an oral vaccine programme with a target of immunising one million people, and the number of cases is now beginning to fall.

Failing record

Zambia, as a lower middle-income economy, lies in the middle of a range of countries caught in the surge of cases in the region, from struggling Mozambique to relatively prosperous Kenya.

“In the last four weeks of 2017 alone, Zambia reported 217 new cases of cholera including 11 deaths, Tanzania 216 new cases including eight deaths, Mozambique 155 new cases, and Kenya 44 new cases,” UNICEF’s regional WASH (Water, sanitation and hygiene) advisor for Eastern and Southern Africa, Suzanne Coates, told IRIN.  But by far the worst-affected countries have been war-debilitated Somalia and South Sudan, with 72 percent and 16 percent respectively of the total cholera caseload.

Coates noted that while progress has been made on access to improved WASH services over the years, no country in the region managed to meet the 2015 Millennium Development Goal on water and sanitation – to halve the proportion of the population without access to sustainable water services and basic sanitation.

Latest WHO and UNICEF estimates indicate that only 53 percent of ESAR citizens have access to basic water services; 30 percent to basic sanitation; just 20 percent to basic hygiene; and that 21 percent of people still practice open defecation.

“So, in the region, we still have more than 148 million people using unimproved drinking water sources, over 108 million still practising open defecation, and over 300 million with no handwashing facility,” said Coates.

“Strategies to prevent and respond to cholera outbreaks are known and are effective and have helped [other] countries effectively control cholera outbreaks,” she added.

Tackling the risk factors requires a developmental response and long-term investment. “Cholera outbreaks will unfortunately recur as long as these factors are not addressed,” said Coates.

Zimbabwe’s cash-strapped government has struggled to make those investments in sewerage infrastructure and water management systems, with cholera outbreaks becoming more frequent since the early 1990s when the economy first stalled. Large outbreaks occurred in 1999 and 2002, with the deadliest between August 2008 and July 2009 – a cumulative total of 98,592 cases and 4,288 deaths. Oxfam Zimbabwe WASH coordinator Abigail Tevera said poor inter-ministerial coordination and a lack of commitment to enforce existing regulations also derails efforts to prevent outbreaks.

Four people have so far died from cholera in Zimbabwe, with over 200 cases of typhoid – a similar waterborne disease – confirmed by 16 January.

Portia Manangazira, the director of Epidemiology and Disease Control in Zimbabwe’s Ministry of Health and Child Care, acknowledged that the public health and sanitation situation in the country was “appalling”, and the nation could do much better to stop “creating” avoidable health crises.

“There have also been no resources to identify high-risk groups and protect them with vaccination, the second layer of population protection when primary prevention has failed,” Manangazira told IRIN. “For this reason, the threat of both cholera and typhoid forever looms.”

Inside a cholera treatment centre in Somalia

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New publication from Brookings Institution Africa Project, January 26, 2018

Celebrating 10 years of the Africa Growth Initiative



CHAPTER 1 Unleashing Africa’s inner strengths: Institutions, policies, and champions

CHAPTER 2 Sustainable financing for economic development: Mobilizing Africa’s resources

CHAPTER 3 Broadening the benefits of growth: No one left behind

CHAPTER 4 Rethinking Africa’s structural transformation: The rise of new industries

CHAPTER 5 Harnessing Africa’s digital potential: New tools for a new age

CHAPTER 6 Reassessing Africa’s global partnerships: Approaches for engaging the new world

Editor: BRAHIMA S. COULIBALY, Senior Fellow and Director, Africa Growth Initiative, Global Economy and Development, Brookings Institution

In a world where China and other emerging economies are ascendant, where cooperation on global governance is under challenge, and where free trade faces headwinds, Africa needs its own institutions to play a more assertive role in advancing the continent’s agenda. The potential for a more unified Africa to create never-before-seen opportunities for trade and economic prosperity is gaining traction.

Though the threat of terrorism and political instability still hangs over certain regional hotspots, neighboring African countries are leading peace negotiations and contributing to solutions. Democracy continues to spread, but hiccups seen in countries like Kenya and Zimbabwe, as well as temptations of third termism in others, underscore the need to consolidate the gains of good governance.

Finally, the demographic tidal wave looms ever closer, and job creation has not yet been able to catch up.

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Original Article: Quartz: Lagos and Nairobi

By Yomi Kazeem, November 27, 2017

As Africa’s tech startups and their founders go about creating disrupting industries or, in some cases, building new ones, they’ve typically tended to mushroom across three major ecosystems: Nairobi, Cape Town and Lagos.

But over the past year, Lagos’ claim as the continent’s startup epicenter has gained currency. For starters, it’s the continent’s most valuable ecosystem with its startups typically raising far more in early-stage funding. It’s also home to e-commerce heavyweights such as Jumia and Konga and has birthed some of the continent’s best known startups including Andela, iROKO and Flutterwave which have all attracted major global investor interest. Hence, it’s not surprising the world’s biggest tech companies have been paying some attention and, now, they’re backing that up with action.

Lagos, being Africa’s largest city and the commercial center of Africa’s largest economy, has seen its ecosystem grow rapidly time largely thanks to work that’s been done to build the its “Yabacon Valley.” That work is paying off: last year, Nigeria attracted more investment than any other startup ecosystem in Africa.

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Boko Haram, climate change, predatory armies, and extreme hunger are converging on a marginalized population in Central Africa.

The New Yorker, December 4. 2017

By: Ben Taub

Original Article: The World’s Most Complex Humanitarian Disaster

Chad was named for a mistake. In the eighteen-hundreds, European explorers arrived at the marshy banks of a vast body of freshwater in Central Africa. Because locals referred to the area as chad, the Europeans called the wetland Lake Chad, and drew it on maps. But chad simply meant “lake” in a local dialect. To the lake’s east, there was a swath of sparsely populated territory—home to several African kingdoms and more than a hundred and fifty ethnic groups. It was mostly desert. In the early nineteen-hundreds, France conquered the area, called it Chad, and declared it part of French Equatorial Africa.

A few years later, a French Army captain described Lake Chad, which was dotted with hundreds of islands, as an ecological wonder and its inhabitants as “dreaded islanders, whose daring flotillas spread terror” along the mainland. “Their audacious robberies gave them the reputation of being terrible warriors,” he wrote. After his expeditions, the islanders were largely ignored. “There was never a connection between the people who live in the islands and the rest of Chad,” Dimouya Souapebe, a government official in the Lake Region, told me.

Moussa Mainakinay was born in 1949 on Bougourmi, a dusty sliver in the lake’s southern basin. Throughout his childhood and teen-age years, he never went hungry. The cows were full of milk. The islands were thick with vegetation. The lake was so deep that he couldn’t swim to the bottom, and there were so many fish that he could grab them with his hands. The lake had given Mainakinay and his ancestors everything—they drank from it, bathed in it, fished in it, and wove mats and baskets and huts from its reeds.

In the seventies, Mainakinay noticed that the lake was receding. There had always been dramatic fluctuations in water level between the rainy and the dry seasons, but now it was clear that the mainland was encroaching. Floating masses of reeds and water lilies began to clog the remaining waterways, making it impossible to navigate old trading routes between the islands.

Lake Chad is the principal life source of the Sahel, a semiarid band that spans the width of Africa and separates the Sahara, in the north, from the savanna, in the south. Around a hundred million people live there. For the next two decades, the entire region was stricken with drought and famine. The rivers feeding into Lake Chad dried up, and the islanders noticed a permanent decline in the size and the number of fish.

Then a plague of tsetse flies descended on the islands. They feasted on the cows, transmitting a disease that made them sickly and infertile, and unable to produce milk. For the first time in Mainakinay’s life, the islanders didn’t have enough to eat. The local medicine man couldn’t make butter, which he would heat up and pour into people’s nostrils as a remedy for common ailments. Now, when the islanders were sick or malnourished, he wrote Quranic verses in charcoal on wooden boards, rinsed God’s words into a cup of lake water, and gave them the cloudy mixture to drink. By the end of the nineties, the lake, once the size of New Jersey, had shrunk by roughly ninety-five per cent, and much of the northern basin was lost to the desert. People started dying of hunger.

In 2003, when Mainakinay was fifty-four years old, he became the chief of Bougourmi. He was proud of his position, but not that proud; his grandfather had presided over more than four hundred islands—until the government stripped the Mainakinays of their authority as Chiefs of the Canton, a position that they had held for more than two hundred years. The center of power was moved to the town of Bol, on the mainland. The islanders were of the Boudouma tribe; the mainlanders were Kanembou. They didn’t get along.

Other political developments were more disruptive. Colonial administrators had drawn the boundaries of Chad, Cameroon, Nigeria, and Niger right through tiny circles of huts on the islands. When these nations enforced their borders, the fishermen and cattle herders of Bougourmi, which is in Chad, were cut off from the lake’s biggest market, which is in Baga, on the Nigerian shoreline. In the mid-aughts, hungry and desperate, they turned to foraging in the bush for fruit and nuts. Then they began to run out of fruit and nuts.

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AUTHORS: Steven Langdon, Archibald R. M. Ritter and Yiagadeesen Teddy Samy

ROUTLEDGE: Forthcoming, February 2018.

One source: African Economic Development, Amazon.ca’

Sub-Saharan Africa is at a turning point. The barriers to economic growth of the 1980-2000 era are disappearing and new optimism is spreading. However, difficult goals of eliminating poverty, achieving equity and overcoming environmental threats continue. This much-needed and insightful textbook has been written to help us understand this combination of emerging improvements and significant challenges.

Opening with an analysis of the main theories relating to development in Sub-Saharan Africa, the book explores many of  the key issue-areas, including:

  • Human development: income distribution and poverty, education, health a
  • Structural and gender dimensions;
  • Governance and economic institutions;
  • Urbanization, migration and regional development;
  • Key sectors: agriculture, industry, resources, infrastructure and communications;
  • Sustainable development and environmental issues;
  • International dimensions: trade, the multinational enterprise, development assistance, international migration, and China’s role in Africa.

The authors use economic tools and concepts throughout, in a way that make them accessible to students without an economics background. Readers are also supported with a wide range of case studies, on-the-ground examples and statistical information, which provide a detailed analysis of each topic. This text is also accompanied by a comprehensive companion website, featuring additional sources for students and instructors.

African Economic Development is a clear and comprehensive textbook suitable for courses on African economic development, development economics, African studies and development studies.






Chapter 1:  Dimensions of Development: Geography, Ecology, History

Chapter 2:  Concepts of African Economic Development – Growth, Structural Change, Poverty and Gender

Chapter 3:  Development Theories, Political Economy and Governance

Chapter 4:  Economic Institutions and Planning for Development


            Chapter 5:  Demography

Chapter 6:  Income Distribution and Human Needs

Chapter 7:  Human Development: Education and Health

Chapter 8:  Labour and Livelihoods, Formal and Informal

            Chapter 9:  Urbanization, Migration and Regional Change


Chapter 10:  Environment and Climate Change

Chapter 11:  Agriculture and Rural Development

Chapter 12:  Natural Resources and African Development

Chapter 13:  The Industrial Sector

Chapter 14:  Infrastructure, Communications, Services and Tourism

Chapter 15:  Macroeconomic Management, Debt and Structural Adjustment Plans


            Chapter 16:  Trade and Economic Development

Chapter 17:  Multinational Corporations and Foreign Direct Investment

Chapter 18:  Development Assistance – the African Record

Chapter 19:  The Changing Role of China in Africa

Chapter 20:  International Migration



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United Nations Economic Commission for Africa and African Union: MINERALS AND AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT

UNECA and AU, 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Complete Document: Minerals and African Development Report

 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY (abbreviated)

 THIS REPORT ON Africa’s mineral development regimes was prepared by the International Study Group (ISG) established in 2007 by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). It analyses African mining from a number of complemenary perspectives, driven by a search for new directions based on the African Mining Vision (AMV) which African leaders adopted in 2009. !e processes which led to this Report started in 2007, at the peak of the expansion in global demand and rise in the prices of minerals and metals before the onset of the global $nancial and economic crisis in 2008. Even as the surge in demand and prices fuelled the best period of growth in Africa for thirty years, the developments also provoked re#ections about the experiences of two decades of continuous expansion of mining across Africa.

The report is based on the central premise of the African Mining vision (AMV) that the structural transformation of African economies is “an essential component of any long-term strategy to ensure the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) …, eradicate poverty and underpin sustainable growth and development”, and that this requires “a strategy … rooted in the utilization of Africa’s signi$cant resource assets”. It recognizes that a central challenge which must be addressed by any long term strategy is how to overcome the historical structural de$ciencies of the mining industry. Mining’s contribution as a supplier of strategic minerals to industrialized countries, the focus of policy on those minerals that play that role, the inadequate returns to the continent and the enclave nature of mining industries have, since colonial times, been and remain central features of the African landscape today. Early post colonial attempts to transform the colonial bequest of an enclave industry failed for a variety of reasons discussed in the Report.

From the late 1980s, the inauguration of extensive liberalizing reforms of regulatory and legal frameworks, on the basis of World Bank prescriptions, drew a line under the nationalist reform efforts. Over the past two decades, the favourable environment the reforms created aided the revival of foreign investment in Africa’s mining industry. While foreign investment has regenerated and expanded mineral production and exports, its contribution to social and economic development objectives has been far less certain and has even been contested in many countries. In many mineral-rich African countries a very visible civil society movement, protesting about the costs and questioning the bene$ts of the revitalized mining sectors, has emerged.

The report examines the costs and benefits of Africa’s contemporary mining regimes and offers proposals about how to optimize the continent’s benefits from the exploitation of its mineral resources while reducing the direct and indirect costs and negative impacts. !ese issues are grouped and discussed in chapters on: the history of mining in Africa; current global trends and the opportunities and challenges they pose; how best to manage the environmental, social and human rights impacts of mining; how to better support and integrate artisanal and small scale mining; the nature and status of corporate social responsibility initiatives; capture, management and sharing of mineral revenues; the optimization of mineral based linkages; the implications of international trade and investments rules for mineral-based industrialization; the important role of institutions and regional strategies for mineral policy harmonization.

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Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division https://unstats.un.org/home/nso_sites/

Kenya: National Bureau of Statistics Workshop

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INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS: Some Hyperlinked General Sources and Recent Studies on African Development



African Development Bank. ALL MAJOR PUBLICATIONS

African Development Bank. AFRICA INFORMATION HIGHWAYHttp://dataportal.opendataforafrica.org/

African Development Bank, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, United Nations Development Program. African Economic Outlook 2016, SPECIAL THEME: Sustainable Cities and Structural Transformation

African Development Bank, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, United Nations Development Program. 2013. African Economic Outlook 2013: Structural Transformation and Natural Resources.

African Development Bank, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, United Nations Development Program.  African Economic Outlook, 2017 Entrepreneurship and Industrialisation

African Development Bank, African Union and UN Economic Commission for Africa. 2016. African Statistical Yearbook, 2016, Addis Ababa.

African Development Bank, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, United Nations Development Programme, Economic Commission for Africa. 2015. African Economic Outlook, 2015; SPECIAL THEME: Sustainable Cities and Structural Transformation. Addis Ababa.

African Development Bank. 2016. African Development Report 2015 – Growth, Poverty and Inequality Nexus: Overcoming Barriers to Sustainable Development, Addis Ababa.

Africa Tourism Data Portal



African Union, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, African Development Bank and United Nations Development Programme.

2017 Africa Sustainable Development Report: Tracking Progress on Agenda 2063 and the Sustainable Development Goals. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

All African Union Websites

NEPAD (New Partnership for Africa’s Development) – Planning and coordinating technical body of the African Union.



World  Migration Report for 2015; Migrants and Cities: New Partnerships to Manage Mobility



Africa Human Development Report 2016; Accelerating Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in Africa.

Human Development Report 2015: Work for Human Development,

Human Development Report 2016: Human Development for Everyone

The Sustainable Development Goals Report, 2017.



World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision. Key Findings and Advance Tables.

World Urbanization Prospects: The 2011 revision.


  1. UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR AFRICA. https://www.uneca.org/ (Regional arm of the UN in Africa.)

UNECA PUBLICATIONShttps://www.uneca.org/publications


Economic Report on Africa, 2015, Industrializing through Trade.

Transforming African economies through smart trade and industrial policy

UN Economic Commission for Africa African Development Bank, African Union and UNDP.  2016. MDG Report 2015: Lessons Learned In Implementing The MDGs. Assessing Progress In Asfrica Toward The Millennium Development Goals. Addis Ababa.

UN Economic Commission for Africa, African Union, African Development Bank and United Nations Development Programme. 2015. MDG Report, Assessing Progress in Africa toward the Millennium Development Goals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia



UNEP.  African Environmental Outlook 2006.


  1. UNITED NATIONS HABITAT. Nairobi, Kenya.

State of African Cities 2014: Reimagining Sustainable Urban Transitions

World Cities Report 2016 Urbanization and Development:  Emerging Futures.



Economic Development in Africa Report 2017

Handbook of Statistics 2016

Trade and Development Report 2017

World Investment Report (WIR)



Open Knowledge Repository, FOCUS: Sub-Saharan Africa.

World Bank Group – Sub-Saharan Africa. – Provides information on each country, data and statistics, publications and reports, development topics, regional initiatives, projects and programs, partnerships, Millennium Development Goals and Country Public Information Centers.

Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2017

World Development Indicators, 2017

World Development Report 2018: LEARNING to Realize Education’s Promise

World Bank, Migration and Remittances Data. Washington D.C.

Migration and Remittances  Factbook, 2016 (Third Edition)


  1. WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM, World Bank, the African Development Bank, and the OECD. 2016. Geneva. The Africa Competitiveness Report 2015,



Africa Bibliographical Database  A collection of African social science titles in one location on the web.

Africa Confidential – Information service covering economic and political issues. Has a subscription service for full issues.

allAfrica.com – Sustainable Africa – News about the issues of biodiversity, water, energy, health and agriculture. Includes organizations, calendar and resources.

Brookings Institution, Africa Growth Initiative. 2016. Washington DC Think Tank’s program on Africa.

Columbia University Libraries – African Studies: Business and Economic Information on Africa – Directory of categorized and annotated links.

Emerging Africa Infrastructure Fund – Represents a new financing approach for the long term alleviation of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa.

Infrastructure Consortium for Africa (ICA) – Effort to accelerate progress to meet the urgent needs of Africa in support of economic growth and development, addressing both national and regional constraints. Includes Secretariat, membership, press kit and newsletter.

Institute for African Development – Africa Development Program at Cornell University. Africa Notes, program information, announcements

Internet African History Sourcebook: historical sources on the history of human societies in the continent of Africa are presented, when available, without making prejudgements about what is “African”.

Politics and Governments in Africa: The Keele Guide to African Government and Politics on the Internet. An amazingly complete information source

Stanford University – Africa South of the Sahara: Development – Annotated links of business and economic development sites.

University of Pennsylvania – African Studies Center: Development – Annotated directory of links to resources.

World Happiness Report 2017, Helliwell, J., Layard, R., & Sachs, J. New York: Sustainable Development Solutions Network. http://worldhappiness.report/



 Abbink, Jon, Mirjam de Bruijn & Klaas Van Walraven (Eds). 2003. Rethinking Resistance: Revolt and Violence in African History. Leiden: Brill,

Ajayi, J. and M. Crowder, Editors). 1985. Historical Atlas of Africa. Harlow, United Kingdom: Longman

Collins. R. O. and J. M. Reid. Cambridge: Cambridge University press. A History of Sub-Saharan Africa.

Falola, Toyin. Key Events in African History: A Reference Guide. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.

Gilbert, Erik and Jonathan T. Reynolds. 2012. Africa in World History: From Prehistory to the Present. Boston: Pearson (ISBN: 978-0-205-05399

Isichei, Elizabeth Allo. 2004. The Religious Traditions of Africa: A History. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers,

McEvedy, Colin. 1995. The Penguin Atlas of African History. London: Penguin Books,

Meredith, Martin. 2005 The Fate of Africa: A History of 50 of Years of Independence, New York: Public Affairs.

Parker, Johnand Richard Rathbone. 2007. African History: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press,

Reid, R. J. 2009. A History of Moden Africa, 1800 to the Present. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

UNESCO. 1181-1993. General History of Africa, 8 Volumes. London Heinemann.

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